Anal cancer is an uncommon cancer that develops in the anal opening or in the anal canal, which is about 1. The inner lining of the anal canal, known as the mucosa, is made up of different types of cells. With anal cancer, normal cells in this area begin to grow out of control and invade surrounding tissue. Most anal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, which are tumors that develop from the squamous cells that line the anal canal. About 20 percent of anal cancers have no symptoms, but most with the disease will notice signs such as bleeding from the anus, a lump or mass at the anal opening, persistent pain and itching, narrowing stools, or a draining or discharge from the anus.
Anal Cancer - UAB Medicine
Anal cancer is a rare tumor with an incidence that has been rising over the last 25 years. The disease was once thought to develop as a result of chronic irritation, but it is now known that this is not the case. Multiple risk factors, including human papillomavirus HPV infection, anoreceptive intercourse, cigarette smoking, and immunosuppression, have been identified. HIV infection is also associated with anal cancer; there is a higher incidence in HIV-positive patients but the direct relationship between HIV and anal cancer has been difficult to separate from the prevalence of HPV in this population. HIV infection is also associated with anal cancer; there are increasing numbers of HIV-positive patients being diagnosed with the disease.
Pruritus ani is a common condition with many causes, predominately anorectal pathology. There are some new insights and therapies, but the most recommendations are based on low-level evidence. A review of the evidence is presented and a management plan based on the elimination of irritants and scratching, general control measures and active treatment measures is offered.